**But the truth is the truth – Nisi Verum sit Verum**

Often scientists create a theory and then they have the courage to refute it. Why do they do? We understand the amount of energy and mathematical analysis that is put into arriving at a conclusion. Yet, they refute it. What could be the reason?

The reason is that truth prevails. “**Nisi Verum Sit Verum”** – the truth is the truth. When Pontius Pilate pointed his finger to Jesus Christ and asked **“Quid est veritas?”** What is the truth? Probably Pilate was asking this question to himself. Was Jesus the son of God?

The work that Dr. Hawking and Penrose did between 1965 and 1970 showed that according to General Relativity there must be a singularity of infinite density and space-time curvature within a black hole. This means that Universe had a specific beginning at the singularity.

If D = m/v then if the volume is real zero or lim -> zero, then density at singularity is infinite. (Note: Any number divided by zero is undefined but if the number is $10^{-50}$ or the number is tending towards zero then obviously it is infinite.

See Also | Godel and Einstein – A Walk Towards Eternity

Let us clearly understand the difference between infinity and undefined Also when Rs (the Schwarzschild radius)=r or when r becomes zero, the Schwarzschild metric along with the proper time blows up or when time becomes infinite on the outside area of a black hole.

Physicists never like anything which is not definite ‘**Non-certus’**. Hence, the conclusion that Hawking-Penrose did for singularity lead to problems. The laws of physics were not in love with infinity. The marriage should be broken.

However, Penrose phrased:** “God abhors a naked singularity.”** How the person hitting the singularity would see the consequence of infinity was not clear as anything after the event horizon is not visible. The singularity theorems provided by Hawking and Penrose showed that the laws of physics break down and time and the Universe had a definite beginning.

Hawking was not happy with this. But he knew that the terminator of this theory is already born there. The prediction of classical relativity shows that the universe becomes so small that the quantum mechanical effects become important. Hawking went forward to formulate the theory of quantum gravity.

See Also | Grigori Perelman – The Saint of Mathematics

Hawking boldly refuted the singularity theorem as it leads to no solution. He proposed the ‘no boundary theorem’ which included the quantum mechanical effects at the beginning of the universe. The creation and annihilation of particles lead to Hawking Radiation.

However, the no-boundary proposal gave Hawking a tool to show that there is **NO SINGULARITY**.

He writes:

There would be no singularities at which the laws of science broke down, and no edge of space-time at which one would have to appeal to God or some new law to set the boundary conditions for space-time. One could say: “The boundary condition of the universe is that it has no boundary.” The universe would be completely self-contained and not affected by anything outside itself. It would neither be created nor destroyed, It would just BE.”

How boldly Dr. Hawking refuted his own theory just to prove that science embraces only truth and nothing else: **“Nisi Verum Sit Verum”**

(Image Credit: University of Oxford)

Shounak Bhattacharya is working as a Director, Training and Placement Department for Asian College of Teachers, Thailand. Apart from training, he is a researcher as well as a teacher in the area of

- Tensor analysis,
- General theory of relativity,
- Differential geometry and
- Introductory topology.

Shounak has been researching and educating the global crowd in the area of building career opportunities through teaching, researching, and communicating. Working with Asian College of Teachers, his main focus has been **increasing employability** factors among young students. The path leads to many factors including teaching, researching, communicating as well as creating a unique model which would employ the right person for the right job.

Relentlessly working in **simplifying difficult mathematical concepts**, Shounak’s interest revolves around Einstein’s general theory of relativity and creating structures, models, videos to educate the mass. He has been in touch with Prof. Lohiya, a former student of Dr. Stephen Hawking, and has conducted interviews regarding his experience working with Stephen Hawking.

He is working under the guidance of Dr.Richard Sot, Ph.D. Mathematics, University of Rochester, NY and Dr.Santosh Karn, Ph.D., Physics from Delhi University.

He has held numerous live interviews with researchers, educators, teachers, and dignitaries around the globe primarily,

- Thailand,
- Malaysia,
- Japan,
- The United Kingdom,
- Australia and
- Vietnam

He is a professional translator of the Arabic language, certified from RMIC. He is currently into Persian-Urdu translation of literary texts and creating videos on complex mathematical concepts.