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Back to Basics – For Better and Faster Knowledge in Children

girl child


Like in a building, the brick is the building base of a house. similarly, the child constructs his own knowledge by interacting with the environment

Constructivist theory is given by Jean Piaget, who was the famous psychologist who tried this theory on his three kids.

The constructivist theory was based on cognitive development.

Cognitive development is connected with the brainchild understanding the things around him.

The theory was based on intelligence and intellectual development.


Stages Given by Piaget

1. Sensorimotor Stage

Birth to 2 years

Major characteristics are:

  • infant senses get active.
  • infant learn about basic things such as talking, grasping, looking, and listening
  • They learn about the object permanence
  • They think that their action is the cause of the thing happening around the world

2. The Pre-Operational Stage

Ages 2 to 7 years

Major characteristics are:

  • Symbolic development takes place.
  • A child uses a picture to donate an object.
  • Children tend to be egocentric in that they can see things from the perspective of the other.
  • They are getting better with language and thinking and it developed a little bit of concrete thinking.

The important development in this stage is the language that the child can speak some of the words.

3. Concrete Operational Stage

Ages: 7 to 11 years

Major characteristics are:

  • In this stage, the children begin to think logically.
  • They understand the concept of conservation that the amount of liquid remains the same in every vessel.
  • Still, children’s thinking is concrete in nature.
  • They are using inductive logic, from specific information to a general information

4. Formal Operational Stage

Ages:12 and up

Major characteristics are:

  1. Abstract thinking emerges.
  2. Adolescents begin to reason behind everything and try to find the solution to hypothetical problems.
  3. They think deeply on topic of the moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and political issues.
  4. Begin to use deductive reasoning from a general principle to a specific principle.
  5. Scientific knowledge increases.

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They are the pattern of knowledge that is already present in the child’s mind and he fills these patterns by acquiring knowledge from the environment.


This is the process in which children begin to acquire knowledge by interacting with the environment and the inquiry skills also get improved.

For example, a child sees a cat outside might he question who is it? “Then you answer this is a cat.”

so in this way with a lot of questions asked by the child he assimilates his knowledge.


The child is getting inculcating new knowledge into his already present knowledge.

This process is a little bit confusing for the child as a child has to compare with pre-existing knowledge.


It is a process to maintain a balance between assimilation and accommodation.

All these stages given by Piaget are appropriate in nature, and every child has to undergo these stages whether soon or late.

Educational Implications

  • The constructivist theory makes a child independent.
  • A child can take responsibility for his own study.
  • Practical skills get improved.
  • Peer learning increases.
  • Collaboration quality increases.
  • The child can involve in a class.
  • Removes the boredom.
  • Increases concentration power.
  • Knowledge retains for a longer time.
  • The child is very active in the classroom.



As a whole, if we have to sum up Piaget’s great and efficient theory, then his theory is master in explaining the cognitive development of the child.

A child is the creator of his own knowledge. Though every child grew at his own pace the stages should be the same.

In Piaget’s theory, he did not talk about moral development which is also necessary for life.

This is the main drawback of his theory, which is given by Vygotsky later in his theory of moral development.

With the combination of mental and cognitive development, the child grows in a wholesome manner and he will be the leader in the coming time.

Even some schools are working for the moral as well as intellectual development of the child.

This theory is very concrete in nature, if a teacher imparts this theory in his classroom, then students enjoy this type of active learning a lot, and evaluation would be very easy for them.


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